News code: 137
Release date : Tuesday 12 May 2015 - 11:10

Publication of the Book, “Application of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants in Landscape Design and Healing Gardens”

Publication of the Book, “Application of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants in Landscape Design and Healing Gardens”

The book “Application of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants in Landscape Design and Healing Gardens”, was published coincidentally with Tehran’s Twenty-eighth International Book Fair (April, 2015).

medicinal plants in landscape book

Application of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants in Landscape Design and Healing Gardens

The book “Application of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants in Landscape Design and Healing Gardens”,  was published coincidentally with Tehran’s Twenty-eighth International Book Fair (April, 2015).

Application of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants in Landscape Design and Healing Gardens

Written and Compiled by: Mohsen Kafi,  Gholam Hossein Homayouni,  Mohammad Taghi Ebadi, Abbas Zare

Published by: Education and Promotion of Agriculture Publication (Entesharat Amoozesh va Tarvij Keshavarzi)

First published 2015

1st Printing

International Standard Book Number: 9786006362953

Pages: 384

In the introduction of this book we have: ever since the beginning of creation, human beings have been in touch with their surrounding nature. Nature has been respected by different races in the world since it has been considered as God’s creation. In the myths and legends of the existence of the universe, there is the description of creation in areas and locations near the natural elements such as rivers, mountains, swamps, etc, which represents the relationship between God created elements and natural environment. As if, the nature of human has been tempered with nature itself, and this relationship is part of its needs. Unfortunately, due to so many factors such as the modern lifestyle, in the present century this relationship has been lost in the midst of the hectic urban life and keeps deteriorating.

The industrialization of the urban life has made unpleasant physical and spiritual modifications on urban human beings and has severely damaged their physical and psychological physiology, which has mostly been caused by the detachment of todays man from the natural environment and its existing elements. Therefore, there is no other way but to establish a balanced relationship between nature and technology or in other words, modern life. Parks of different sizes  are considered as green patches of ecological and social centers of life in cities. The existence of various plant species and trees in these areas can reconcile man and nature in cities. The healing gardens  phenomenon is a new subject that is currently widely acknowledged throughout the world. Owing to the deep connection between the five senses and nature and the intrinsic properties of therapeutic gardens, they are distinctive from other gardens and certain specific usages are defined for them.  Observing the designing principles and choosing the appropriate species, will make it possible for the healing gardens to eliminate the physical and spiritual problems with the assistance of the powerful effect of nature on mankind. The goal of this book is to depict the application of medicinal plants in making of  gardens and designing  landscapes, hence the establishment of healing gardens in cities. Now, with the support of God, by publishing this book, the initial steps into establishing conceptual and scientific connection between urban landscapes and medicinal plants are taken, all these in order to develop healing gardens in the cities of our country. With the assistance of the compilers, their scientific knowledge and administrative experience in this regard,  we can pay tribute to the valuable history and culture of our great country.

Mohsen Kafi

(Professor of Tehran University, horticulture and landscape science and engineering department)

Gholam Hossein Homayouni

(Lorestan University PhD  student of horticulture science)

Mohammad Taghi Ebadi

(Holder of medicinal plant PhD  degree from Tehran Tarbiat Modares University)

Abbas Zare

(Managing director of Parks and Landscape Organization of Karaj Municipality)


Authors acknowledgment


Modern outlook on position of medicinal plants in landscapes and healing gardens

Healing gardens, common era of landscapes, Iranian traditional gardens and medicinal plants

Medicinal plants, an embracement of making gardens and Iranian nature in creating xeriscaping

Healing and healing garden properties

Healing garden indexes

Some ground cover plants substituted by medicinal plants

Medicinal plants as reducers of surface evapotranspiration

Medicinal plants and consistent development of urban landscapes

Medicinal plants as an important device in weight distribution of water in xeriscaping

Medicinal plants and the increase of water efficiency

Medicinal plants and the development of shading mechanism in landscapes

Medicinal plants application similar to edible gardens

Revival of traditional medicine

Last word

First chapter: Application of  medicinal plants’ potentials in landscapes

The importance and the advantages of medicinal plants usage in landscapes

The significant and notable qualities to consider when choosing a medicinal plant for application in landscape design

The psychology of colors in green space with reliance on medicinal plants

The introduction

Color-designing principles

Chapter two: Classification of plants used in landscapes

Classification of plants based on botany

Classification of landscape plants from the viewpoint of resistance to environment conditions

Classification of landscape plants based on their growth habits and shape and type of aerial stems

Classification of landscape plants based on their life cycle

A: Annual landscape plants

B: Biennial landscape plants

The application of annuals and biennials in landscape design

1- Annuals

A: Sustainable annuals

B: Sensitive annuals

2- Biennials

C:  Landscape perennials

Perennial herbaceous application in landscape planting design

Classification of suitable medicinal plants for application in landscape design

Chapter three: Environmental criteria in choosing a plant species


Chemical air pollution control

Physical air polluion control

Resistance against sulfur dioxide

Release of oxygen

Sunshine and temperature control  (shade of tree)

Wind or air current control

Rain and humidity control

Soil erosion and fixation control

Water erosion control

Chapter four: The physical criteria in choosing a plant species


Plant growth habits

Trees and shrubs sizes

The need to have a suitable ecology with the climatic conditions of the area

Prevention of planting polluting trees

Prevention of eating some plants

Problems and limitations of plant species

Price and accessibility of species

No allergy-causing

Hedge plants

Ground cover plants

Advantages of ground cover plants

Designing with ground cover plants

Plant tissue

Color and ornamental display in different seasons

Color and ornamental display in winter

Shape of the leaf

Unwanted flower bulbs

Chapter five: Designing criteria in choosing species


Habitat and the kind of area where the plant is chosen for

Visual motion control (engird and encompass private areas, control and lead the view)

Annoying reflective rays control


Ground and context


Variety and peace







A: Formal style

B: Informal style

Chapter six: The introduction of medicinal and aromatic plants, applicable in landscapes

1- Calotropis procera

2- Lavandula officinalis

3- Eucalyptus globulus

4- Sambucus nigra

5- Thymus spp




6- Matricaria chamomilla

7- Anthemis nobilis

8- Melissa officinalis

9- Laurus nobilis

10- Quercus spp

11- Viola odorata

12- Achillea millefolium

13- Lippia citriodora

14- Salix alba

15- Salix aegyptiaca

16- Cathrantus roseus

17- Vitex agnus-castus

18- Pyracantha spp

19- Tamarindus indica

20- Betula pendula

21- Ginkgo biloba

22- Stachys lavandulifolia

23- Melia indica

24- Ilex aquifolium

25- Althaea officinalis

26- Rosmarinus officinalis

27- Berberis vulgaris

28- Cornus mas

29- Hyssopus officinalis

30- Olea europaea

31- Melia azedarach

32- Santolina chamaecyparissus

33- Echinacea spp

34- Taxus baccata

35- Rhus coriaria

36- Elaeagnus angustifolia

37- Cordia myxa

38- Papaver rhoeas

39- Pelargonium graveolens

40- Cotoneaster frigidus

41- Tanacetum vulgare

42- Physalis alkekengi

43- Solidago virgaurea

44- Cymbopogon citratus

45- Ziziphus jujuba

46- Linum usitatissimum

47- Ricinus communis

48- Ziziphus spina-christi

49- Capparis spinosa

50- Gypsophila paniculata

51- Digitalis purpurea

52- Chrysanthemum cinerariaefolium

53– Hypericum perforatum

54- Passiflora incarnata

55- Gentiana lutea

56- Saponaria officinalis

57- Echium amoenum

58- Centaurea cyanus

59- Verbascum thapsus

60- Rosa damascena

61- Oenothera biennis

62- Agastache foeniculum

63- Silybum marianum

64- Origanum vulgara

65- Salvia officinalis

66- Myrtus communis

67- Rosa canina

68- .Tilia spp

69- .Crataegus spp

70- Calendula officinalis

Chapter seven: Types of healing gardens


Section one: Digestive system garden

1- Antioxidant medicinal plants

2- Decrease appetite medicinal plants

3- Stimulate appetite medicinal plants

4- Constipation treatment medicinal plants

5- Diarrhea treatment medicinal plants

6- GERD treatment medicinal plants

7- Food digestion medicinal plants

8- Flatulence and cramping treatment medicinal plants

Section two: Skeletal system gardens

1- Arthritis

2- Back pain

3- Torn cartilage

4- Muscle joint pains

5- Muscle spasm

6- Strains

Section three : Immune system gardens

1- Allergies

2- Common cold

3- Wet cough

4- Dry cough

5- Hay fever

6- Flu

7- Sore throat

Section four : Integumentary system gardens

1- Acne

2- Athlete’s foot disease

3- Bites/stings

4- Bruises

5- burn

6- Minor cuts and scrapes

7- Eczema

8- Psoriasis

Section five: Nervous system garden

1- Anger tonic

2- Anxiety

3- Depression

4- Insomnia

5- Memory

6- Tension headaches

7- Migraine

8- Stress

Chapter six: Circulatory systems gardens

1- Antioxidant

2- Arteriosclerosis

3- Blood lymph cleanser

4- Hemorrhoids

5- High blood pressure

6- High cholesterol

7- Varicose veins



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